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雅思阅读是非无判断题“not given"独家分析

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发表于 2007-1-12 00:27 |显示全部楼层 | 阅读模式
雅思精准核心预测

雅思阅读是非无判断题“not given"独家分析 by 贾若寒

选自《最新雅思阅读是非无判断题》一书

第四章 是非无判断题Not Given考点分析

 

Unit 4 An Analysis of Not Given

 

Reading Procedures 阅读步骤:

 

Step 1: 在题目中划出定位词。

 

Step 2: 定位词在文章中定位。

 

Step 3: 若定位词在文章中无法定位,则看有无同义转换,若无同义转换,那么确定答案是Not Given。若在文章中可以定位题目中的定位词,那就要看一下几个方面来确定是Not Given

 

1. 题目中有比较结构,在文章中出现此结构,但是比较的对象不同

 

2. 题目中用情态动词表示对未来的预测或者展望,而在文章中没有提及

 

3. 题目中有的相关修饰词(即考点词)在文章中没有相关的同义词的解释对应

 

4. 在文章中出现过题目中的定位词,但是通过结构多样性的比较,两者是没有关系的。

Example:

题目:The parents of top athletes have often been successful athletes themselves.

文章:No one theory can explain improvements in performance, but the most important factor has been genetics. The athletes must choose his parents carefully. ……

5. 时间对应信息不一致,导致主体信息无法判断

Example:

题目:There was little improvement in athletic performance before the twentieth century.

文章:Since the early years of the twentieth century, when the International Athletic Federation began keeping records, there has been a steady improvement in how fast athletes run, how high they jump and how far they are able to hurl massive objects…….

 

除了以上这些方面之外,还有一些内容学要掌握以确定是否是Not Given

 

. 题目中有比较结构,文章中无比较结构则答案判断为Not Given

 

例一:

 

原文: And the future? It is anticipated that, in the years to come, leisure spending will account for between a third to a half of all household spending, whilst it is difficult to give exact figures, the leisure industry will certainly experience a long period of sustained growth.

 

题目: In future, people will pay less for the leisure facilities they use than they do today.

 

分析:

 

第一步:确定题目中的定位词和考点词(关键词)。本题中的定位词是leisure另外,考点词是pay和一个表示比较结构less……than

 

第二步; 定位词到原文中定位。Leisure在原文中出现了两次。Pay这个词在原文中出现了词性转换和同义转换,成为了另外一个词:spending

 

第三步:原文中定位另外一个关键信息:比较结构。但是原文中并没有出现此结构因此确定答案是Not Given

 

 

 

 

例二:

 

原文: Healthcare providers diagnose insomnia in several ways. One way is to categorize insomnia by how often it occurs. Another way is to identify the insomnia by what is causing the sleep deprivation. The two main types of insomnia have been described as Primary Insomnia and Secondary Insomnia. Primary Insomnia is a chronic condition with little apparent association with stress or a medical problem. The most common form of primary insomnia is psychophysiological insomnia. Secondary insomnia is caused by symptoms that accompany a medical condition such as anxiety, depression or pain.

 

题目: Secondary insomnia is far more common than Primary insomnia.

 

分析:

第一步:确定题目中的定位词。定位词是两个专有名词Secondary insomniaPrimary insomnia而本题的关键词则是far more common than的比较结构。

 

第二步; 定位词到原文中定位。文章中两次出现了以上两个专有名词。

 

第三步:原文中定位另外一个关键信息:比较结构。但是原文中并没有出现此结构因此确定答案是Not Given

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

. 题目中有表示因果关系的表达方式,而原文中并没有此表述或相似结构,则答案判断为Not Given

 

例:

 

原文: Working hours are not expected to decrease, partly because the 24-hour society will need to be serviced; and secondly, because more people will be needed to keep the service/leisure industries running.        In the coming decades, the pace of change will accelerate generating greater wealth at a faster rate than ever before. Surveys show that this is already happening in many parts of Europe. The south-east of England, for example, is now supposedly the richest area in the EEC. The ‘leisure pound’ is one of the driving forces behind this surge.

 

题目: The 24-hour society will have a negative effect on people’s attitudes to work.

 

分析:

 

第一步:确定题目中的定位词。本题是明显的数字定位。24-hour society是明显的定位词。而本题中的关键词或考点词是表示结果的一个短语have a negative effect on。另外一个定位词是attitudes to work

 

第二步; 定位词到原文中定位。24-hour society出现在原文的第一句。但是原文中无法定位任何表示因果关系的词组。而且通过浏览原文也无法搜索到有关people’s attitudes to work的信息。

 

因此,可以判断本题的答案是Not Given

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

. 题目中有表示趋势的词组,而在原文中无法找到相关的表述,则答案判断为Not Given

 

 

原文: The future, we are told, is likely to be different. Detailed surveys of social and economic trends in the European Community show that Europe’s population is falling and getting older. The birth rate in the Community is now only three-quarters of the level needed to ensure replacement of the existing population. By the year 2020, it is predicted that more than one in four Europeans will be aged 60 or more and barely one in five will be under 20. In a five-year period between 1983 and 1988 the Community’s female workforce grew by almost six million. As a result, 51% of all women aged 14 to 64 are now economically active in the labour market compared with 78% of men.

 

题目: The rise in the female workforce in the European Community is a positive trend.

 

分析:

 

第一步:确定题目中的定位词。本题中的定位词是两个专有名词female workforceEuropean Community专有名词在文章中一般来说不会发生同义转化。而题目中的句子的表语a positive trend则是判断的关键。

 

第二步; 定位词到原文中定位。原文中的一句话In a five-year period between 1983 and 1988 the Community’s female workforce grew by almost six million. 同时提到题目中的两个关键词。而且原文中的grew和题目中的rise构成了同义词转化和词性转化。

 

第三步:原文中的关键词a positive trend在原文的定位句中并没有出现,而且通过上下文的信息搜索,也没有相关的任何信息,因此答案为not given

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

. 题目中表示明确的作者意图,而在文章中无法清晰理解此意图,则答案判断为Not Given。。

 

例:

 

原文: I would suggest that foxes pose a greater problem, yet there is no passionate public campaign to oust foxes, presumably because it is obvious we can never eliminate the millions of wild foxes in Australia. Yet the same common sense thinking is not applied to cats. It is thought instead that, if everyone would only spay their cats, string bells around their necks and keep them in at night, cats would no longer kill wildlife. But what of the millions of feral cats in our deserts and woodlands? They are the bigger problem, but they are no more controllable than foxes or cane toads.

 

题目: The author believes that all wild foxes should be killed.

 

 

分析:

第一步:确定题目中的定位词。本题中的定位词是wild foxes。而题目中的关键词(或称为考点词)的词是allbe killed此外,另外一个核心的考点是The author believes……

 

第二步; 定位词到原文中定位。原文的第一句提到了上述的定位词和考点词。文章原句是I would suggest that foxes pose a greater problem, yet there is no passionate public campaign to oust foxes, presumably because it is obvious we can never eliminate the millions of wild foxes in Australia.

 

第三步:比较题目和文章原句的含义:

 

题目的中文意思是:作者认为应该杀死所有的野生狐狸。

 

原文句子的意思是:我的观点是狐狸引起了更加严重的问题,但是公众却没有什么热情去开展活动驱逐狐狸,这大概是因为在澳洲要消灭所有的狐狸显然是不可能的。

 

通过比较我们发现作者的观点在原文中和题目中是没有共同点的。

 

所以本题判断为not given

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

. 题目句子中的主谓宾结构在原文中无法对应,则答案判断为Not Given

 

原文: In the last 20 years, scientists have detected an increasing variety of toxic contaminants in the North, including pesticides from agriculture, chemicals and heavy metals from industry, and even radioactive fall-out from Chernobyl. These are substances that have invaded ecosystems virtually worldwide, but they are especially worrisome in the Arctic.

 

题目: Industry in the Arctic has increased over the last 20 years.

 

分析:

 

第一步:确定题目中的定位词。定位词分别是时间表达式over the last 20 years,专有名词Arctic和主语Industry另外,考点词是increased

 

第二步:定位词到原文中定位。文章原句是: In the last 20 years, scientists have detected an increasing variety of toxic contaminants in the North, including pesticides from agriculture, chemicals and heavy metals from industry, 我们发现在原文中的时间对应词和题目中的相同,而Arctic在原文中也没有变化。而考点词在原文中转化成了increasing原文的表述是 an increasing variety of toxic contaminants,说明增加的是variety of toxic contaminants,而题目中的主语是Industryindustry在文章中的表述是……heavy metals from industry。但这并不能判断工业是否增长。所以本题判断为not given

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

. 题目和原文都有比较,但是比较对象不同,答案判断为Not Given

 

 

原文: Scientists have found that a smoked substance reaches the brain more quickly than one swallowed, snorted (such as cocaine powder) or even injected.

 

题目: Snorted substances reach the brain faster than injected substances.

 

 

分析:

 

题目和原文都有比较,比较的关键词是reach the brain faster than,原文中有一个同义词转换结构reaches the brain more quickly than。其中fastermore quickly构成了同义词转换的用法。

 

题目中比较的两方面是Snorted substancesinjected substances而原文的比较内容是a smoked substanceswallowed, snorted (such as cocaine powder) or even injected题目中的比较对象在原文中是并列关系,因此无法进行比较,所以答案判断为not given

 

 

 

. 题目中表示现在状况,而文章中表示将来的可能性,答案判断为Not Given;反之亦然。

 

原文: Nearly half the world’s population will experience critical water shortages by 2025, according to the United Nations (UN). Wars over access to water are a rising possibility in this century and the main conflicts in Africa during the next 25 years could be over this most precious of commodities, as countries fight for access to scarce resources.

 

题目: Some African countries are currently at war over water resources.

 

 

分析:

 

题目中定位词African countrieswarwater在原文中都可以定位相应的词汇。 但是题目中的关键词是currently而在文章中的表述是……during the next 25 years could be……现在和将来的两种状态无法进行比较。所以答案判断为not given

 

 

 

. 原文中有表示极端的修饰词如most, all, any等,而在文章中无法搜索到相关的同义表述,答案判断为Not Given

 

 

原文: Hydroelectric power is at present the earth’s chief renewable electricity source, generating 6% of global energy and about 15% of worldwide electricity. Hydroelectric power in Canada is plentiful and provides 60% of their electrical requirements. Usually regarded as an inexpensive and clean source of electricity, most big hydroelectric projects being planned today are facing a great deal of hostility from environmental groups and local people.

 

题目: Canada uses the most hydroelectric power in the world today.

 

分析:

 

通过题目中的两个专有名词Canadahydroelectric power定位。原文提到了Hydroelectric power in Canada is plentiful and provides 60% of their electrical requirements. 但是并没有说到most……in the world today。从上下文的关系来看文章中提到的most big hydroelectric projects being planned today are facing a great deal of hostility from environmental groups and local people也与题目的表述无关。。所以答案判断为not given

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发表于 2007-1-20 19:53 |显示全部楼层

[雅思第一时间]填写您的邮件地址

有道理个
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发表于 2007-1-24 20:48 |显示全部楼层

[雅思第一时间]填写您的邮件地址

例一:the leisure industry will certainly experience a long period of sustained growth.

sustained growth 难道不是比较么?

持续增长的意思就是和现在比持续增长

谁能解释我的问题

 

 

[em06][em06][em06][em06][em06][em06][em06]
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发表于 2007-2-12 03:29 |显示全部楼层
非常好的解釋這個not given的問題,
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发表于 2007-3-16 04:27 |显示全部楼层

3楼实在白痴

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发表于 2007-4-15 22:33 |显示全部楼层

很有道理嘛

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发表于 2007-4-17 03:52 |显示全部楼层
书那有卖的啊
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发表于 2007-4-27 04:33 |显示全部楼层
谢谢啦!!!很有道理,慢慢研究去了!!
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发表于 2012-7-29 11:17 |显示全部楼层
谢谢分析
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旗木卡卡林 该用户已被删除
发表于 2013-1-17 02:21 |显示全部楼层
提示: 作者被禁止或删除 内容自动屏蔽
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