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科学美国人60秒:脑部扫描可能揭示风险偏好

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    2018-12-17 08:45
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    [LV.9]以坛为家II

    发表于 2018-9-21 09:39 |显示全部楼层 | 阅读模式
    雅思精准核心预测
    This is Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'mChristopher Intagliata.
    So, here's the gamble: 20 bucks guaranteed...or a50–50 chance of winning 60 bucks?
    Which would you choose?
    The answer might actually be evident in a brainscan, according to a study in which researchersposed actual terms like that to 108 young adults—and the stakes were real. The initial choiceand then the outcome if they picked the bet determined how much they'd walk away with, after the study. The research is in the journal Neuron.
    "It does work out in our favor that people are risk averse because it means on average we'regoing to be paying people less, they win would otherwise." Joe Kable, a psychologist andneuroscientist at the University of Pennsylvania. After he and his team recorded the subjects'appetite for risk, they scanned their brains using various techniques that visualize anatomyand real-time activity.
    And they found that individuals who were willing to throw the sure-thing $20 away for thechance of a higher payout were more likely to have larger amygdalasthat's a regionassociated with processing fear, and weighing risk versus reward. They also saw in thegamblers' brains more synchronized activity between the amygdala and another region, calledthe medial prefrontal cortex. But there were fewer physical, white matter, connections betweenthose two regions. Which might seem paradoxical.

    "To a first pass intuition you might expect, well, you know, shouldn't these two be goingtogether?" But Kable explains that even though you start out life with lots of those whitematter connections, they tend to get trimmed and refined during development. So fewerphysical connections between regions could actually indicate a more mature, more developedsynchronization of activity between them.
    "It's possible within the population that we see of healthy young adults, a more prunedstructural connection between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex is a sign of amore developed connection and one that might be more effective or efficient, and thus leadto greater communication between the two areas."
    This type of scanning to predict behavior is in its infancy now. But down the line? "I canimagine it being used to help steer people to what the right place to put their money is whenthey're investing." And the study also hints at the fact that brain scans might reveal a lotmore about your attitudes and your behavior than you might think. A good thing to keep inmind.
    Thanks for listening for Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.

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