设为首页收藏本站学习中心

无忧雅思

  • 公众微信: ielts51
  • 业务合作: 4006805851

新浪微博登陆

只需一步, 快速开始

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

返回列表 发新帖

精辟!傅莹在外媒发表的这篇文章,把中美当下复杂问题...

[复制链接]

新浪微博达人勋

  • TA的每日心情
    难过
    2018-10-19 08:36
  • 签到天数: 568 天

    [LV.9]以坛为家II

    发表于 2018-9-26 10:54 |显示全部楼层 | 阅读模式
    雅思精准核心预测
    9月11日,美国主流媒体彭博社(Bloomberg)刊登了全国人民代表大会外事委员会副主任委员、中国社科院全球战略智库首席专家傅莹的署名文章,引起了国外各界的广泛关注。

    文章题为《中国如何应对变化中的美国?》(How Should China Respond to a Changing U.S.?),摘编自傅莹2018年8月28-29日在亚洲协会等机构的演讲《中美今天的选择决定未来两国关系》。

    傅莹在文中对当下中美关系、美国对华态度发表了精辟的见解,我们一起来看看。


    1美国对中国的态度发生变化

    傅莹在文章中谈到,她在最近访美期间,发现美国人对华态度变了。

    美国学者普遍认为:

    The U.S. was frustrated at not having shaped China in its own image, despite bringing the country into the World Trade Organization and helping to enable its economic takeoff.
    在美国帮助中国加入世贸组织、实现经济腾飞之后,中国没有接受美国的政治制度,美方对此感到失望。

    Instead, China had “ripped off” the U.S. by taking advantage of it in trade and business. There was concern at how fast China was climbing up the global economic and technological ladder, and that its military was threatening to “elbow out” the U.S. from Asia.
    相反,在双方经贸交往中,中国还“占尽美方的便宜”,美方更担心中国在全球经济和技术阶梯上的快速提升。美方还认为在军事上受到被中国‘挤出’亚洲的威胁。

    2美国的指责是否公允

    傅莹认为,首先中国应该思考一个问题:美国的指责是否公允(the Chinese people first have to ask whether U.S. criticisms are fair)?

    傅莹说,美国在中国未能实现自己的政治目标,但显然这不是美国唯一的“失败”,更不是最惨痛的。

    In fact, given what’s happened to some countries since the “color revolutions” and the “Arab Spring,” the U.S. should be thankful that its efforts haven’t thrown China into political turmoil and economic chaos. The fact that China has maintained social and political stability and followed its own economic path has contributed to global economic growth, especially after the 2008 financial crisis.
    在见证了“颜色革命”和“阿拉伯之春”给一些国家带来的后果之后,美国应该庆幸,中国没有自废武功地走上错误的道路,既没陷入政治动荡,也没出现经济混乱,而是保持总体社会稳定,成功走出一条符合自身国情的经济发展道路,为全球经济——特别是2008年金融危机之后的全球经济——做出了贡献。

    伊拉克和阿富汗的重建让美国耗费了大量财政资源,而中国的发展极大地惠及了美国的繁荣。

    3中国在全球化过程中的角色

    的确,中国的经济得到了快速发展。

    Taking advantage of the globalization promoted by the U.S. and Europe, hardworking Chinese gained access to global capital, technologies, expertise and markets, all of which facilitated the growth of industry. Hundreds of millions of Chinese came out of poverty, and living standards in the country have risen substantially.
    通过充分利用美欧推动的全球化带来的机遇,勤劳的中国人有效使用了国际资金、技术、经验和市场,促进了工业化进程。数以亿计的中国人民摆脱了贫困,人民生活水平取得巨大提升。

    但必须记住两点:

    ❶ First, Chinese workers paid a steep cost for these developments, just as American workers did.
    第一,与他们的美国同行一样,中国工人为这些发展付出了巨大的代价。

    After entering the World Trade Organization, Chinese enterprises were suddenly thrown into direct competition with global peers. Many of them didn’t survive, leading to huge layoffs all over the country.
    例如,入世之后,国内企业突然直接面对国际竞争,多数产业陷入困难,有的甚至难以为继,大量工人下岗。

    ❷ Second, China’s gains have benefited the U.S. as well.
    第二,中国的发展同样惠及美国。

    According to Oxford Economics, U.S.-China trade helps each American family save $850 every year. Between 2001 and 2016, U.S. commodities exports to China expanded five times, much higher than the 90 percent average increase.
    牛津研究院估计,从中国进口的低价商品帮助普通美国家庭平均每年节省850美元。从2001年到2016年,美国货物贸易对华出口增长500%,远高于同期对全球出口90%的增幅。

    The advent of the “internet of things” and rapid growth in the number of China’s middle- and upper-class consumers will offer even more opportunities for U.S. companies.
    万物联网时代的到来和中国快速增长的中高收入消费者群体的出现,将为美国公司提供更多机会。

    所以说,中国已成为世界经济不可分割的组成部分。

    China is not only an integral part of the global economy, but also an indispensable source of growth.
    中国已成为世界经济不可分割的组成部分,更是世界经济增长不可或缺的重要动力来源之一。

    Any attempt to “decouple” it from the U.S. or the global economy will hurt all countries, including the U.S.
    任何“脱钩”的尝试都必然给世界各国带来严重的损伤,包括对美国。

    4 中国应如何回应?

    傅莹认为,面对美国的强硬但混乱的声音,我们需要保持淡定,重要的是聚焦自身发展,解决好自己的问题。
    The Chinese have to stay cool-headed in the face of tough but confusing messages from the U.S. We must stay focused on China’s development, and overcome our own difficulties.

    接下来,傅莹解释了中国为什么没有对美采取更加对抗的态度。

    China is not adopting a more confrontational stance toward the U.S. Its current attitude is part of its overall foreign policy, which is aimed at ensuring a sound environment that facilitates effective cooperation with the outside world to serve China’s development goals.
    中国没有对美采取更加对抗的态度。因为,中国对美政策是整体外交政策的组成部分,而中国外交政策的目标是维护一个和平的外部环境和合作的国际关系,以服务于国家的发展。

    For its purposes, there’s every reason for China to maintain an attitude of “constructive cooperation” with the U.S.
    因此,中国有理由继续坚持“建设性合作”的政策。

    5 中国如何应对中美贸易摩擦

    傅莹坦言,中美关系的变局对中国也是又一次倒逼改革的机会。
    In fact, changes in U.S.-China relations may help to push China’s own desired reforms.

    美方工商界提出来的市场准入等问题,许多正是中方需要通过改革着力解决的。

    The government is, in fact, opening up: Eight out of the 11 market-opening measures announced by President Xi Jinping in April have been put in place, covering banking, securities, insurance, credit rating, credit investigation and payment, and so on.
    事实上,中国政府正在进一步推进开放:国家主席习近平今年四月宣布的11项开发市场的具体承诺,迄已落实8项,涉及银行、证券、保险、评级、征信、支付等。

    The government is also working harder to improve the business environment and strengthen intellectual property protections for both Chinese and foreign enterprises.
    政府也在下大力气改善营商环境,加强对中外企业知识产权的保护。

    Chinese reformers can turn outside pressure to their advantage, using it to bust through internal resistance to necessary changes.
    中国的改革者可以将外部压力转化为动力,打破阻力、实现必要的改革成效。

    6中方绝不会屈服于关税霸凌

    傅莹说,但有一点必须清楚:中方绝不会屈服于关税霸凌(make no mistake: The Chinese people will stand firm against U.S. bullying over trade)。

    There is talk about China’s economy “sliding down” as a result of the trade war. Some expect China to succumb soon. I can tell you that this is wishful thinking.
    有些言论声称贸易战使中国经济“滑坡”,还有人认为可以期待中国屈服了。这只是一厢情愿。

    傅莹提到,中国经济正在去杠杆期间,本身就存在较多痛点,处于咬紧牙关砥砺前行的阶段,这也是为了维持未来的健康发展不得不做的。

    It’s worth remembering that China adopted a stimulus program to help overcome the global recession triggered by the 2008 financial tsunami in the U.S. And it’s worth noting that the trade war may slow the necessary process of deleveraging.
    需要提的一句是,2008年金融危机以来,中国正是为了参与解救美国所引发的金融风暴,才采取了较大规模的经济刺激政策。贸易战或许会减缓必要的去杠杆进程。

    7抱怨和伤害对方解决不了问题

    傅莹在文章结尾处表示,抱怨和伤害对方解决不了问题,只会让情况更糟(finger-pointing and hurting each other won’t solve any problems)。

    因此,中国应继续与美方沟通。

    Many in China believe that the root causes of U.S. troubles lie within — and therefore need to be solved by Americans themselves. We can see that the U.S. system requires a major overhaul to overcome deep sociopolitical divisions and economic disparities.
    在许多中国人看来,美国的麻烦是美国自己的问题,需要美国人自己解决。我们可以看到,美国社会在分裂和转型压力之下面临严峻挑战,需要全面调整。

    But that doesn’t relieve China of the responsibility to engage in dialogue, to find out where the two sides can and can’t agree, and to seek solutions or at least ways to manage persistent disputes.
    但同时,中方有责任坚持对话,逐步澄清双方的一致点和分歧点,以拆解矛盾和解决问题、抑或管理难题的方式,渡过中美关系的险滩激流。

    最后,傅莹引用了一个谚语,说明中国仍然会坚持主张,继续保持对话合作。

    Such an approach won’t appeal to those who seek confrontation now. But, to borrow a saying, if some folks want to chase butterflies, why should the rest of us go dancing along with them?
    当然,那些一心寻求对抗的人或许不会对这个途径感兴趣。但是——让我借用一个谚语——如果有些人想追逐蝴蝶,其他人为什么要随之起舞呢?

    看完傅莹的文章,你是不是对中国对待中美贸易摩擦的态度以及对中美关系未来走势有了更清晰的认识了呢?




    发表回复

    您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册用户 新浪微博登陆

    本版积分规则

    帮助中心
    网友中心
    购买须知
    支付方式
    服务支持
    资源下载
    售后服务
    定制流程
    关于我们
    关于我们
    友情链接
    联系我们
    关注我们
    官方微博
    官方空间
    官方微信
    快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表