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不可小觑的雅思阅读逻辑关系词

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    2019-1-25 14:59
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    [LV.9]以坛为家II

    发表于 2019-1-18 09:13 |显示全部楼层 | 阅读模式
    雅思精准核心预测

           作为学术类国际上权威性的考试,雅思考试有其严肃的试题内容,即使雅思题型多达十类,富于变化,考点也在文中各处出现。但在雅思这复杂出题方式中,始终会把对英语篇章结构和行文规律的理解作为阅读的一项基本要求重点考查。因此加强这方面的学习研究是从根本上提高应试能力的途径。本文仅从英语行文结构中逻辑关系词的作用及其阅读功能这一具体方面作初步探讨。

      关于逻辑关系词在阅读中的作用,我们首先来看一段文字:

      the discourse markers signal relationships: between different parts of the discourse … the main reason for studying them is their usefulness in helping the reader to work out the meaning of difficult text. They often show the relationship the writer intends between two parts of the text, so if you can understand one part, the discourse marker is a possible key to the other part. (Christine Nuttall, 1996. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language, Heinemann)

      关于“discourse marker”,P.H.Matthews在其Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics (Oxford University Press) 一书中是这样描述的:Any of a variety of units whose function is within a larger discourse rather than an individual sentence or clause: e.g. but then in But then he might be late. “discourse marker”

      虽然范围更加广泛一些,但从以上文字不难看出,它包括了我们所熟悉的逻辑关系词(即文章中用于表示并列,转折,举例,因果,递进,让步,总结等逻辑关系的固定单词或词组)。也由此可见,特别重视形式逻辑和思维分析的英语行文,在词语之间和句子之间往往会借助各种逻辑关系词清楚表达思维逻辑和语意关系。因此了解和掌握逻辑关系词可以帮助我们把握文章中语意的转换和发展,理解文章重点表达的意思。

      具体到雅思阅读,逻辑关系词在解题中体现出两大功能 :

      一、语意推断

      语意推断主要是运用于重点题型之一的摘要题(Summary)。具体是指根据空格所在句及前后句的逻辑关系词,分析词语之间,句子之间的语意关系,推断出所缺单词的大致含义。

      例如:

      1.剑4 / P77 / Q38

      Some corpora include a wide range of language while others are used to focus on a particular linguistic feature.

      根据while这个表示对比或转折的逻辑关系词,可以判断它前后部分是对比或反义关系。“a wide range of language”指的是语言研究的广泛的各个方面,可以预判空格处应是指具体的方面。

      二、定位

      根据对历年雅思真题的总结分析,雅思阅读考试的一个重要规律是:题干中的句子之间,词语之间的逻辑关系在原文中一般不变(但表现方式可能会变)。这一规律使得逻辑关系词可以有效地协助题干关键词在原文中定位答案信息源。尤其在摘要题(Summary)中这一方法使用频率很高。

      例如:

      1.剑5 / P50 / Q30-31

      题干:In Britain, moreover, scientists worried that English had neither the technical vocabulary nor the grammatical resources to express their ideas.

      原文:First, it lacked the necessary technical vocabulary. Second, it lacked the grammatical resources required to represent the world … (Para.7)

      题干中出现的neither…nor…是连接两个否定概念的并列逻辑关系词。原文中对应出现了完全相同的逻辑关系,即first, it lacked …, second it lacked …(表现方式有所变化)。我们可根据这种对应的逻辑关系在原文中快速定位答案信息源。

      2.剑5 / P50 / Q33-34

      题干:Although English was then overtaken by German, it developed again in the 19th century as a direct result of the industrial revolution.

      原文:In the following century much of this momentum was lost as German established itself as the leading European language of science. … However, in the 19th century scientific English again enjoyed substantial lexical growth as the industrial revolution created the need for new technical vocabulary.

      题干中出现的两种逻辑关系均在原文中对应出现。一是表示转折关系的although, 对应于原文中的however;二是表示因果关系的as a direct result of 对应于原文中表因果的逻辑关系词as。很显然,这对于题干信息的定位意义重大。

      3.剑5 / P70 / Q25-26

      题干:To deal with this, Stanley suggests the use of artificial floods in the short term, and increasing the amount of water available through desalination in the longer term.

      原文:In the immediate future, Stanley believes that one solution would be to make artificial floods to flush out the delta waterways, in the same way that natural floods did before the construction of the dams. He says, however, that in the long term an alternative process such as desalination may have to be used to increase the amount of water available.

      题干中出现了表示递进的逻辑关系词in the short term … in the longer term …。快速查读原文,可定位于文中相同的逻辑结构in the immediate future … in the long term …。

      另外,对雅思真题文章进行精读训练的同学会发现,除了以上两大功能之外,逻辑关系词在原文中的位置还常常是命题考点最集中的地方。因此学习和掌握逻辑关系词在阅读中的功能和作用,将对提高答题的速度起关键性的作用。同时,能够熟练运用逻辑关系词对于写出条理清楚,层次分明的雅思作文也大有帮助。

      附:雅思考试中常见的逻辑关系词

      1.表示并列关系

      likewise once again/once more in (much) the same way (manner) similarly/similar to vice versa also/as well as not only … but also … both … and … neither … nor … like/just like as/just as equally namely or and

      2.表示转折关系

      but/yet/whereas however otherwise in contrast (to) conversely though/although nevertheless unlike in spite of despite on the contrary even if/even though

      on the one hand …, on the other hand … instead (of) not as … as … rather than even so vary different from differ from

      while

      3.表示举例

      for example/for instance/e.g. such as that is/namely/i.e.

      in other words in general/in particular a case in point is especially specifically

      4.表示因果关系

      as a result as a consequence consequently so/therefore/thus then for this reason hence accordingly because/because of owing to thanks to on account of

      since due to …, for as this is why

      5.表示递进关系

      and then as well as again another also/too in addition (to) additionally additional besides (that) moreover furthermore not only … but also … what’s more

      6.表示让步关系

      though/although while even though/even if nevertheless in spite of/despite admittedly

      7. 表示总结

      in a word in brief in short above all all in all on the whole in general to conclude/in conclusion to sum up/to summarize/in summary (编辑:HD)



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